Online Classroom

Sunday, September 03, 2006

Recommendation Report

I. Introduction

Recommendation report is a technical paper used in persuading the reader to take a certain course of action to solve a day-to-day problem in a company.

This is usually written by a supervisor or manager who, in the course of the performance of his job, encounters a problem and reports it to his superior with a recommendation on how to solve it. The writer is duty-bound to report the problem and solve it, thus the term “recommendation.”

The recommendation is based on a study on the nature of the problem. It may recommend one or more possible solutions. The solution may be done inside the corporation or outside. When the solution to the problem requires hiring the services or buying the products of other firms, a proposal or several proposals to be bid may be required.

II. Content and Organization

Basically, a recommendation report contains the following parts:

1. Background. This is a description of the situation that led to the discovery of the problem.
2. Analysis of the Problem. This is an in-depth discussion of the problem. This may be a brief discussion of a research conducted to understand and solve the problem.
3. Recommendation. This is a discussion of the recommended solution or possible solutions (options) to the problem.

The arrangement of the above contents is suggested in the following outline:

...........I. Background
...........II. Analysis of the problem
...........III. Recommendation

III. Mechanics

The report may be in the following forms:
A. Informal report
1. Letter
2. Memorandum
3. Outline

B. Formal report

It has all the parts of formal report. The analysis of the study may be a full-blown research report.


References

Hurley, Pat Kamalani, Recommendation Report. A Guide to Documents . Leeward CC University of Hawaii. Retrieved Sept. 3, 2006. http://emedia.leeward. awaii.edu/ hurley/default.htm
McMurrey, David. Online Technical Writing: Recommendation and Feasibility Reports. Retrieved Sept. 1, 2006. http://www.io.com/~hcexres/ tcm1603/ acchtml/acctoc.html:

Nem Singh, Rosario P. and Jovita O. Calixihan Fundamentals of Technical Writing. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, 1990.

Saturday, August 26, 2006

Definition

I. Introduction

A. Definition and uses

Definition is a special technique in writing used in clarifying the meaning of a term. Since technical writing uses terms that are simple, concrete, and familiar, it is used in defining special, new, and job-specific terms.

Special terms are terms that simple, concrete, and familiar but have several meanings in different fields or instances. The term “line,” for instance, is has different meanings to engineers, poets, fishermen, and businessmen. It has to be defined operationally in a technical paper.

New terms are those that are used with the introduction of new machines, methods, and the like. The term “laser,” for instance, was used with the introduction of a machine that performs light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

Job-specific terms are those that are unique to certain groups of people. For instance, “lava” is unique to volcanologists and the like.

In research report writing, it is used in defining the variables and related terms.

B. Types of definition

According to structure, definitions may be classified into sentence definition and paragraph (amplified) definition. Sentence definitions are further grouped into formal and informal definitions

Formal definitions are those with fixed parts, namely:

1. the term to be defined,
2. the class to where the term belongs, and
3. the differentiating characteristics, or characteristics that distinguish the term from all other terms belonging to the same class.

Informal definitions are those that have no fixed parts. Synonyms, for instance, are considered informal definitions.

Paragraph or amplified definitions are used in amplifying or further clarifying the meaning as stated in sentence definitions.

II. Contents and Organization

The contents for a formal definition are its fixed parts arranged as they are usually written.

The contents of paragraph definition depend upon the methods used in amplifying a sentence definition. “Water cycle,” for example, have “stages” as its contents, which are arranged chronologically.

III. Mechanics

A. Formal definition

In writing formal definitions, the following rules may help:

1. Put the term into a class.
2. The class must be small enough but adequate.
3. Make the differentiating characteristics precise.
4. Do not define a term by mere repetition.
5. Use simpler and more familiar terms.

B. Paragraph or Amplified Definitions

The following methods are used in amplifying sentence definitions:

1. Analysis
2. Cause and Effect
3. Classification
4. Comparison and Contrast (Negative statement)
5. Derivation
6. Description
7. Examples and incidents
8. Process

Induction and Interpretation of Data

I. Introduction

Induction (in logic) is the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances. It is a conclusion reached by this process (American Heritage Dictionary). It is a special technique in writing used in the interpretation of data and in making conclusion.
Interpretation of data is the part of technical papers that explains the meaning of the data gathered. In research report, it answers the specific questions.

II. Contents

The contents of induction are general principle and particular facts or instances. In research report, the answers to specific problems or questions are the general principles and the data gathered to answer these questions are particular facts. Moreover, the answer to the research problem or the conclusion is the general principle and the answers to the specific questions are the specific facts or instances.

III. Organization

The data in induction are arranged logically, from specific to general. It should be clarified, however, that, in writing the interpretation of data, generalization may be given first and the particulars as justification next. The thinking process is still induction, not deduction. Unlike induction, deduction consists of premises (major premise and minor premise) and the conclusion (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225).

IV. Mechanics

The following reminders can help make correct induction:

1. Use reliable bases of generalization. Use scientific research methods so as to ensure reliable sources of data. Avoid superstition and personal, popular, emotional, and misleading generalization; these are unreliable bases of generalization (Gorrell and Laird 31-38).

2. Do not generalize beyond what the evidence warrants (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225).

3. Use precise terms in making conclusion (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225)..
You may combine the analysis or presentation of data, also called results, and the interpretation of data, also called discussion (Laflen Online).

Outline of Chapter 4 of a Research Report with combined Analysis and Interpretation of Data on the research problem “Are the attitudes of Metro Manila residents towards imported goods positive?”

Chapter 4
RESULTS
Introduction
I. Quality
.......A. Analysis
.............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
.............1. Answer to the specific question on quality based on the hypothesis test results
.............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
.............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2
II. Price
......A. Analysis
............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
............1. Answer to the specific question on price based on the hypothesis test results
............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2

III. Availability
......A. Analysis
............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
............1. Answer to the specific question on availability based on the hypothesis test results
............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2


References

Gerber, Robert. Data Interpretation. Robert Gerber Home Page. Retrieved Aug. 24.
.........http://www.petech.ac.za/ robert/DataInterpr.htm

Gorrell, Robert M. and Charlton Laird. Modern English Workbook. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: .........Prentice Hall, Inc. 1966.

“Induction” American Heritage Dictionary in Answers.com.
Laflen, Angela. “Results: Interpretation of Data.” Online Writing Lab: Purdue University. Aug.-.........Sept. 2001. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ workshops/hypertext/reportw/bodyresults2.html
Rorabacher, Louise Elizabeth, Georgia Dunbar and Clement Dunbar Assignments in exposition. .........12th .ed. NY : Addison-Wesley, 1996.

“Writing Assignment: Induction Essay.” Towson.edu Home Page. Retrieved January 31, 2006.
..........http://www.towson.edu/ ~duncan/inducess.html


Induction and Interpretation of Data

I. Introduction

Induction (in logic) is the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances. It is a conclusion reached by this process (American Heritage Dictionary). It is a special technique in writing used in the interpretation of data and in making conclusion.
Interpretation of data is the part of technical papers that explains the meaning of the data gathered. In research report, it answers the specific questions.

II. Contents

The contents of induction are general principle and particular facts or instances. In research report, the answers to specific problems or questions are the general principles and the data gathered to answer these questions are particular facts. Moreover, the answer to the research problem or the conclusion is the general principle and the answers to the specific questions are the specific facts or instances.

III. Organization

The data in induction are arranged logically, from specific to general. It should be clarified, however, that, in writing the interpretation of data, generalization may be given first and the particulars as justification next. The thinking process is still induction, not deduction. Unlike induction, deduction consists of premises (major premise and minor premise) and the conclusion (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225).

IV. Mechanics

The following reminders can help make correct induction:

1. Use reliable bases of generalization. Use scientific research methods so as to ensure reliable sources of data. Avoid superstition and personal, popular, emotional, and misleading generalization; these are unreliable bases of generalization (Gorrell and Laird 31-38).

2. Do not generalize beyond what the evidence warrants (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225).

3. Use precise terms in making conclusion (Rorabacher and Dunbar, 202-225)..
You may combine the analysis or presentation of data, also called results, and the interpretation of data, also called discussion (Laflen Online).

Outline of Chapter 4 of a Research Report with combined Analysis and Interpretation of Data on the research problem “Are the attitudes of Metro Manila residents towards imported goods positive?”

Chapter 4
RESULTS
Introduction
I. Quality
.......A. Analysis
.............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
.............1. Answer to the specific question on quality based on the hypothesis test results
.............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
.............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
.............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2
II. Price
......A. Analysis
............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
............1. Answer to the specific question on price based on the hypothesis test results
............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2

III. Availability
......A. Analysis
............1. Total number of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............2. Weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Hypothesis test results
......B. Interpretation
............1. Answer to the specific question on availability based on the hypothesis test results
............2. Evidence: weighted average of each group of SA, A, U, D, SD responses
............3. Connection between the findings and the theoretical framework
............4. Similarities or differences of findings of study to findings of other studies reviewed in Chapter 2


References

Gerber, Robert. Data Interpretation. Robert Gerber Home Page. Retrieved Aug. 24.
.........http://www.petech.ac.za/ robert/DataInterpr.htm

Gorrell, Robert M. and Charlton Laird. Modern English Workbook. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: .........Prentice Hall, Inc. 1966.

“Induction” American Heritage Dictionary in Answers.com.
Laflen, Angela. “Results: Interpretation of Data.” Online Writing Lab: Purdue University. Aug.-.........Sept. 2001. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ workshops/hypertext/reportw/bodyresults2.html
Rorabacher, Louise Elizabeth, Georgia Dunbar and Clement Dunbar Assignments in exposition. .........12th .ed. NY : Addison-Wesley, 1996.

“Writing Assignment: Induction Essay.” Towson.edu Home Page. Retrieved January 31, 2006.
..........http://www.towson.edu/ ~duncan/inducess.html


Saturday, August 12, 2006

MLA Citation Guide
Introduction
This guide is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. (Modern Language Society, 2003. Works Cited items are listed alphabetically at the end of the research paper. In the body of the paper these items are referred to using Parenthetical references.
For additional examples, please refer to the MLA Handbook.
Book
(one author)
Bibliography:
Johnson, Charles Richard. Middle Passage. New York:
.....Atheneum, 1990.

In-Text:
(Johnson 176)
Book
(two to three authors)
Bibliography:
Leakey, Mary D. and Louis S. B. Leakey. Some String Figures?? from
.....North East Angola. Lisboa: Museu do Dundo, 1949.
In Text:
(Leakey and Leakey 12)
For more authors, use:
(Leakey et al.)

Anthology
Bibliography:
McNally, John, ed. Humor Me: An Anthology of Humor
.....by Writers of Color. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 2002.
In-Text:
(McNally xv)

Work in an Anthology
Bibliography:
James, Henry. "The Friends of the Friends." The Norton
.....Book of Ghost Stories. Ed. Brad Leithauser. New
.....York: Norton, 1994. 40-60.
In-Text:
(James 47)
Encyclopedia Article
Work Cited:
“Magna Carta.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed.
.....1998.
In-Text:
("Magna Carta")
Journal Article
Bibliography:
Myerson, Joel. ?A Calendar of Transcendental Club Meetings.?
.....American Literature 44 (1972): 197-207.
In-Text:
(Myerson 199)
Magazine Article

Bibliography:
Cook, Mariana. ?Cousin Kay.? Victoria. Nov.
.....2001: 27-28.

In-Text:
(Cook 28)

Newspaper Article
Bibliography:
Johnston, David Cay. "Got Game? Got Old Game?" New
.....York Times 11 July 2003, late ed., F1+.

In-Text:
(Johnston F3)

Review

Bibliography:
Barth, Melissa E. Rev. of The Summons, by John Grisham.
.....Magill Book Reviews 1 Nov. 2002: 221.

In-Text:
(Barth)
Work of Art (photograph of)
Bibliography
Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique. Apotheosis of Homer. Musee
.....du Louvre, Paris. Gardner's Art Through the Ages.
.....10th ed. By Helen Gardner. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace,
.....1996. Plate 22.

In-Text:
(Ingres)

Television Program
Bibliography:
“Popularity of Fur on Rise Again.” Narr. Virginia Cha.
....Sunday Today. NBC. WNBC, New York. 9 Feb.
....2003.

In-Text:
(“Popularity of Fur”)

Sound Recording (CD)
Bibliography:
Copland, Aaron. Long Time Ago: American Songs. Saint
.....Paul Chamber Orch. Cond. Hugh Wolff. Teldec,
.....1994.

In-Text:
(Copland)

Web Home Page
Bibliography:
The Edith Wharton Society. Ed. Donna Campbell.
.....5 Aug. 2003. Gonzaga U. 14 Aug. 2003
.
In-Text:
(Edith)

Document from a Website
Bibliography:
Oates, Joyce Carol. ?The Magnanimity of Wuthering Heights.?
.....Critical Inquiry 9 (1982): 435-449. Celestial Timepiece:
.....A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. Ed. Randy Souther.
.....2003. U of San Francisco. 14 Aug. 2003
.
In-Text:

(Oates)

Item from a Library Database
Bibliography:
Clark, Zsuzsanna. ?From Saturday-Night Poetry to Big Brother.?
.....New Statesman 21 July 2003: 32. Academic Search Premier.
.....EBSCOHost. Ohio State U Libs., Columbus. 14 Aug. 2003.
In-Text:
(Clark)

E-Mail Communication
Bibliography:
Grisham, John. E-mail to the author. 14 July 2002.
In-Text:
(Grisham)

Source:
MLA Citation Guide. University Libraries. Ohio State University. March 8, 2006. http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/mlagd.php


Notes
Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc.
Doublespace all lines.
Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces (or one half inch).
If no author is given, start with the title.
Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July.
If the paging of a magazine or newspaper article is continued elswhere in the issue, include only the first page followed by a plus sign (ex. 25+.).
If the encyclopedia does not arrange its articles alphabetically, treat the encyclopedia article as if it were a book article. Specific volume and page numbers are cited in the text, not in the list of references.
Gale Reference Book: cite the original source being reprinted as shown under Book, Journal Article, Newspaper or Magazine Article, etc. The example shows a Magazine Article. Then include the citation information for the reference book.
Websites: include the title of the web page, the name of the entire web site, the organization that posted it (this may be the same as the name of the website). Also include the full date the page was created or last updated (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it.
Internet Magazine Articles: Include:
The name of the database (underlined) and the company that created it and its home webpage;
The full date of the article (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it;
If you are citing a journal instead of a magazine, include the volume (and issue number) and date as shown under the Journal Style above.
The library or other organization (and its location) that provided you with access to the database.
As for page numbers, different databases will provide different information. Include the range of pages (ex. 25-28.); or the starting page followed by a hyphen, a blank space, and a period (ex. 64- .); or the total number of pages or paragraphs (ex. 12 pp. or 33 pars.). If no page information is given, then leave it out.
The rules concerning a title within a title are not displayed here for purposes of clarity. See the printed version of the manual for details.
For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual.


Source:
Delaney, Robert. MLA Citation Style: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition in C.W. Post Campus, B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library. Jan. 3, 2006. http://www.liu.edu/CWIS/CWP/library/workshop/cita.htmml

Wednesday, June 14, 2006

Characteristics of Technical Writing

Technical Writing

Creative Writing

Subject

arts, science and technology, profession, craft (work-related)

life

Reader

specific

general

Purpose

inform, instruct, persuade

entertain, provoke, captivate

Language

simple, concrete, and familiar

informal, artistic, figurative

Attitude/tone

objective

subjective

Format

attractive

not attractive


Basic Aspects of Technical Writing

  1. Technical papers: the “end products” (report, proposal, technical correspondence)
  2. Special techniques: the skills (the special techniques needed in the preparation of the end products)


Basic Principles of Technical Writing

Basic principles of good technical writing:

  1. Always have in mind a speaker reader whom you always assume as intelligent but uninformed.
  2. Be sure of the exact purpose of your paper before you start to write.
  3. Use language that is simple, concrete, and familiar.
  4. Be clear of what you are communicating. First tell your reader what you are going to tell him, then tell him, then tell him what you have told him.
  5. Make your report attractive to look at.


Parts of a Research Report

I. The Preliminaries
.....A. Title Page
.....B. Abstract
.....C. Table of Contents
.....D. List of Tables and Figures
.....E. Acknowledgment
II. The Body
.....A. Introduction
.....B. Review of Related Literature
.....C. Methodology
.....D. Analysis of Data
.....E. Interpretation of Data
.....F. Summary of Findings
.....G. Conclusion
.....H. Recommendations
III. .Reference Materials
.....A. Appendix
.....B. Bibliography
.....C. Index

Outline of the Body of a Research Report
(with brief description of parts)

I. Introduction
.....A. Background. It establishes the need for the study. It may be historical or conceptual background.
.....B. Statement of the Problem. It states the research problem (expressed in simple question) and the specific questions whose answers eventually solve the research problem.
.....C. Significance of the Study. It states the importance of the study to certain groups or sectors. .....D. Limitation of the Study. It states what the study includes and excludes considering time and financial constraints.
II. Review of Related Literature
.....A. Review. It ideally provides all possible findings and related data on problems similar to the present study.
.....B. Theoretical Framework. It identifies the theory or theories to which findings of the present study contribute either in the form of additional or new knowledge.
.....C. Conceptual Framework. It identifies the independent and dependent variables, thereby putting in concrete its theoretical basis.
.....D. Null Hypotheses. It is the tentative answers in negative form to the specific questions stated in the introduction.
.....E. Definition of Terms. It defines the independent and dependent variables and related terms.
III. Research Design
.....A. Method of Research. It describes the research method necessary.
.....B. The Research Locale. It describes the venue of the research.
.....C. Nature (Profile) of the Sample. It describes the subjects of the study.
.....D. Needed Data and their Sources. It identifies the indicators of the variables and their sources.
.....E. Research Instrument. It identifies and describes the tools used in gathering the data, like questionnaires.
.....F. Procedure. It describes the steps taken in gathering and analyzing the data.
IV. Analysis of Data
.....A. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 1. It discusses in detail the data gathered to answer the specific question number 1.
.....B. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 2. It discusses in detail the data gathered to answer the specific question number 2.
.....C. And so on
V. .Interpretation of Data
.....A. Interpretation of Data for Specific Question 1. It answers the specific question number 1 by making generalizations derived from the data analyzed earlier and relating the answers to findings of earlier research findings.
.....B. Interpretation of Data for Specific Question 2. It answers the specific question number 2 by making generalizations derived from the data analyzed earlier and relating the answers to findings of earlier research findings.
.....C. And so on
VI. Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.


Research Report for Publication

I. Introduction
.....A. Brief background the problem
.....B. Research problem and the specific questions
.....C. The hypotheses
II. .Review of Related Literature (most important only)
III. .Methodology
.....A. Method
.....B. Subjects of study
.....C. Procedure (brief)
IV. Analysis and Interpretation of Data
V. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation


Documentation

The sources of data and information used in the text of the research report are identified by using any of the following:

1. Footnotes or end notes (Chicago manual style)
.....a. Footnotes are special technical notes about the data or information cited found at the bottom of the page.
.....b. End notes are special technical notes about the data or information cited found at the end of the report.
2. Parenthetical notes
.....a. APA (American Psychological Association) parenthetical notes: Author’s surname (or equivalent) and year of publication
.....b. MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical notes: Author’s surname (or equivalent) and the page where the data or information can be located for further reading.
All sources of data used in the study are enumerated in the Bibliography or Works Cited.

Tuesday, March 07, 2006

Feasibility Report
Notes

I. Introduction
....A. Definition and Use
........Feasibility study is one aimed at determining if a project will succeed or a proposal will successfully solve a technical problem as indicated by reliable data. A feasibility report is a technical paper that communicates the results of the said study.

.....B. Types of feasibility studies
..........1. Project feasibility study
................It aims at determining if a project will succeed as indicated by reliable data.
..........2. Comparative feasibility study
................It aims at determining if a proposal or an option can best or better solve a

....................technical problem.

II. Content/Organization/Mechanics

.....A. Outline of a project feasibility report

I. Introduction
.....A. Background of the Problem
.....B. Statement of the Problem
.....C. Purpose of the Study
.....D. Overview of the Report
II. Review of Related Literature
III. Methodology
IV. Analysis and Interpretation of Data
V. Conclusion and Recommendation

......B. Outline of a project feasibility report

I. Introduction
.....A. Background of the Problem
.....C. Statement of the Problem
.....D. Purpose of the Study
.....E. Overview of the Report
II. Analysis of the Problem
III. Technical Section
.....A. Proposal A or Option A
.....B. Proposal B or Option B
IV. Management Section
.....A. Proposal A or Option A
.....B. Proposal B or Option B
V. Cost and Schedule Section
.....A. Proposal A or Option A
.....B. Proposal B or Option B
VI. Company Capabilities and Experience
.....A. Proposal A or Option A
.....B. Proposal B or Option B
VII. Conclusion and Recommendation


References
Calder, Michael. Feasibility of implementing a departmental intranet. Dec. 14, 1996. http://www.io.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/finrepx3c.html

Druker, Phil. Feasibility Report Outline. Advanced Technical Writing, University of Idaho, 2006.
http://www.class.uidaho.edu/adv_tech_wrt/resources/outlines/ feasibility_report_outline.htm
Feasibility Study into the Availability and Collection of Housing-Related Data at Sub-District Level in Wales. A report prepared for the Welsh Assembly Government and the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister by the Social Disadvantage Research Centre University of Oxford January 2003 in Statistical Bulletin. 26 April 2005
Feasibility Study Template www.klariti.com/templates/ Feasibility-Study-Template.shtml

Tuesday, February 28, 2006

Proposal

Notes

Introduction


Definition
Proposal is a technical paper aimed at offering a plan of solving a technical problem under a certain management and at a certain cost.


Use
It is used by service and manufacturing firms in offering solutions to problems on goods and services. Among the firms that use it are the following:
1. Contractor’s firms
2. Special service firms (security, janitorial, maintenance, employment, etc.)
3. Management consultancy firms (accounting,
4. Advertising firms
5. Public Relations firms
6. Manufacturing firms

Types
1. Internal and external
2. Solicited and unsolicited
3. Sole source/service contract proposal

Contents/Organization/Mechnics

Sample Format

Front Matter

Letter of Transmittal
Title Page
Abstract

THE PROPOSAL

Introduction
Background of the Problem
Purpose of the Proposal
Overview of the Content


Body
Analysis of the Problem
Technical Section (proposed solution/s)
Management Section
Cost and Schedule Section
Company Capability and Experience

Back Matter
Appendix
Bibliography and/or Works Cited

References

Geever, Jane C. Proposal Writing Short Course, an excerpt from
The Foundation Center's Guide to Proposal Writing, 4th ed. (New York: The Foundation Center, 2004) Retrieved Feb. 15, 2006. fdncenter.org/learn/shortcourse/prop1.html

Online Technical Writing: Proposals. Retrieved March 1, 2006. http://www.io.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/props.html

Reid, Alice. A Practical Guide for Writing Proposals. Writing Guide Resource. Revised and updated Oct. 13, 2000 and May 30, 2001. members.dca.net/areid/proposal.htm

Tuesday, January 31, 2006

Classification and Analysis

Introduction

A. Definition

Classification is a special technique in writing involving the grouping of data based on a certain principle and discussing each group.

Analysis is special technique in writing that involves the breaking up of a topic in parts and discussing each part in detail.

B. Uses

Classification is used in organizing or collating the collected data for a technical paper like research report.

Analysis is used in the detailed presentation of the data for a technical paper.

C. Types

There are two types of analysis:
Analysis by division: simple analysis
Analysis by dissection: in-depth analysis

Contents

The data in classification are groups and sub-groups.
The data in analysis are parts or sub-parts.

Organization

Groups, sub-groups, parts, and sub-parts can be arranged chronologically, spatially, and logically, depending upon the topic.

Mechanics

Some reminders in classification and analysis:
Use a single principle of classification and analysis.
Do not allow the groups or parts to overlap.
Make the groups or parts relatively complete.
Make the treatment of parts balanced.
Use appropriate organization patterns.
Use appropriate statistical tools of analysis.

Outline of the Body of a Research Report


I. Introduction
.....A. Background
.....B. Statement of the Problem
.....C. Significance of the Study
.....D. Limitation of the Study

II. Review of Related Literature
.....A. Review
.....B. Theoretical Framework
.....C. Conceptual Framework
.....D. Null Hypotheses
.....E. Definition of Terms

III. Research Design
....A. Method of Research
....B. Nature of the Sample
....C. The Data Needed
....D. Sources of Data
....E. Procedure

IV. Analysis of Data

.....A. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 1
.....B. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 2
.....C. And so on

V. Interpretation of Data

.....A. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 1
.....B. Analysis of Data for Specific Question 2
.....C. And so on

VI. Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

Induction and Interpretation

Introduction

Definition

Induction, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, is the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances. It is a conclusion reached by this process.
Interpretation is the process of explaining the meaning of data presented.

Use

Induction is used in interpreting the data. Interpretation of data is used in explaining the meaning of the data analyzed so as to arrive at the answers to the specific problems in research.

Contents

The contents in induction and interpretation are sets of data (particular facts) and the generalization derived from the sets of data.

Organization

The data in induction are arranged logically.

Mechanics

Reminders in writing induction
Include reasonable and manageable number of instances (data or sample).
Use scientific method of gathering data.
Use a representative sample.
Make an accurate record of your evidence.
Make generalizations based on your evidence.

References

“Data interpretation.” Petech Home Page. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2006. http://www.petech.ac.za/robert/DataInterpr.htm

“Induction” American Heritage Dictionary in Answers.com.

Rorabacher, Louise Elizabeth, Georgia Dunbar and Clement Dunbar
Assignments in exposition. 12th ed. NY : Addison-Wesley, 1996.
“Writing Assignment: Induction Essay.” Towson.edu Home Page. Retrieved January 31, 2006. http://www.towson.edu/~duncan/inducess.html

Comparison

Introduction

A. Definition

Comparison is a special technique in writing that takes account of the similarities of two or more things belonging to a certain class.

Contrast is a special technique in writing that takes account of the differences of two or more things belonging to a certain class.

The term comparison is often generally used to refer to both comparing and differentiating.

B. Uses

Comparison is used in making scientific decisions. It is used in the interpretation of data.
It is also used to make unfamiliar things familiar.

Contents

The data in comparison are the similarities and differences of two or more things.

Organization

Although similarities and differences can be organized chronologically, spatially, and chronologically, a special pattern of comparison is also used. There patterns are:
Block pattern
Alternating pattern

Block pattern uses the things compared as main points and the bases of comparison sub-points.

Alternating pattern uses the bases of comparison as main points and the things compared as sub-points.

Alternating pattern is preferred as it makes the comparison direct. Block pattern can, however, be used in one sentence comparison.

Mechanics

Some reminders in comparison:
Use a single set of criteria of comparison.
Compare two or more things belonging to one class. They should be two things alike but different.
Make the treatment of things compared balanced.
Use an appropriate pattern of comparison.
In technical writing, use an appropriate test of significant difference to arrive at scientific decisions.


Reference

Rorabacher, Louise Elizabeth, Georgia Dunbar and Clement Dunbar
Assignments in exposition. 12th ed. NY : Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Description of a Process

Introduction

A. Definition

Description is a special technique in writing that takes account of sense perceptions and information.

Process is a special technique in writing that takes account of steps or stages in a process.

Description of a process is special technique in writing that takes account of steps to provide information on a process.

B. Uses

Description of a process is specifically used in explaining the methods used in the collection and the treatment of data in technical papers.

Process is used in writing memorandum.

C. Types

1. Types of description
a. Evocative description – aimed at stimulating the emotion.
b. Informative description – aimed at giving information

2. Types of process
According to performer:
a. Man-performed process
b. Machine-performed process
c. Nature-performed process

According to purpose:
a. Direction-giving process
b. Information-giving process

Contents

The data in the description of a process are steps.
The data in giving directions are also steps.
The data in description are sense perceptions and information.

Organization

Steps in a process are always arranged chronologically

Mechanics

A. Reminders in writing description of a process:
1. Use indicative mood rather than imperative mood.
2. Emphasize the work done rather than the doer. Better put the doer in the background. Avoid using first person pronoun and active voice.
3. To avoid errors in tenses, consistently use narrative present.

B. Reminders in writing directions:
1. Make your directions complete.
2. Use simpler and more familiar terms. Define special terms.
3. Give reasons for the steps that are confusing.
4. Include negative directions.
5. Use illustrations.

Methods of Research

Research can generally be classified into the following:

1. Experiment
2. Survey
3. Objective Observation
4. Content Analysis
5. Case study
6. Historical study
7. Ethnographic study

Based on the treatment of data, it can be classified into:

1. Normative
2. Comparative
3. Correlational

Based on the type of data collected:

1. Quantitative
2. Qualitative

Based on the availability of information about the subject of study:

1. Descriptive
2. Exploratory

Based on the degree of scientific importance:
1. Pure
2. Applied

Research methods can also be classified according to the specific fields of profession
.